VSim for Plasma Acceleration Publications

  • Lécz, Zs, A. Andreev, A. Seryi, I. Konoplev, and E. L. I. H. U. ELI-ALPS. "Self-injection of multiple electron microbunches into a beam-driven plasma bubble." Proc. 45th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, EPS 2018. 2018-July: 893-896. 01 Jan 2018. PDF.

  • Lécz, Zsolt, Alexander Andreev, Ivan Konoplev, Andrei Seryi, and Jonathan Smith. "Trains of electron micro-bunches in plasma wake-field acceleration." Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 60, no. 7 (2018): 075012. DOI: 10.1088/1361-6587/aac064.

  • Zhang, H., I. V. Konoplev, G. Doucas, and J. Smith. "Concept of a tunable source of coherent THz radiation driven by a plasma modulated electron beam." Physics of Plasmas 25, no. 4 (2018): 043111.  DOI: 10.1063/1.5017551.

  • Lecz, Z., O. Boine-Frankenheim, and V. Kornilov. "Transverse divergence in target normal sheath acceleration of a thick contamination layer." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 774 (2015): 42-50. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2014.11.062

  • Peter Schmidt, Oliver Boine-Frankenheim and Peter Mulser. Optimum laser parameters for 1D radiation pressure acceleration. Laser and Particle Beams, available on CJO2015. doi:10.1017/S0263034615000336

  • Hidding, B., Manahan, G. G., Karger, O., Knetsch, A., Wittig, G., Jaroszynski, D. A., ... & Smith, J. (2014). Ultrahigh brightness bunches from hybrid plasma accelerators as drivers of 5th generation light sources. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 47(23), 234010-234021. doi:10.1088/0953-4075/47/23/234010

  • Xia, G., D. Angal-Kalinin, J. Clarke, J. Smith, E. Cormier-Michel, J. Jones, P. H. Williams et al. "A plasma wakefield acceleration experiment using CLARA beam." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (2013).

  • Sebastian Haas, Oliver, Oliver Boine-Frankenheim, and Fedor Petrov. "Simulations of the electron cloud buildup and its influence on the microwave transmisson measurement." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (2013).

  • Lecz, Z., O. Boine-Frankenheim, and V. Kornilov. "Target normal sheath acceleration for arbitrary proton layer thickness." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (2013).

  • B. M. Cowan, D. L. Bruhwiler, J. R. Cary, E. Cormier-Michel, and C. G. R. Geddes, “Generalized algorithm for control of numerical dispersion in explicit time-domain electromagnetic simulations,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 16, 041303 (2013).

  • Upadhyay, Ajay K., Sushil A. Samant, and S. Krishnagopal. "Tailoring the laser pulse shape to improve the quality of the self-injected electron beam in laser wakefield acceleration." Physics of Plasmas 20 (2013): 013106.

  • Y. Xi,1 B. Hidding,1,2 D. Bruhwiler,3 G. Pretzler,4 and J. B. Rosenzweig1 "Hybrid modeling of relativistic underdense plasma photocathode injectors" PHYSICAL REVIEW SPECIAL TOPICS - ACCELERATORS AND BEAMS 16, 031303 (2013) http://prst-ab.aps.org/pdf/PRSTAB/v16/i3/e031303
  • B. M. Cowan et al., Computationally efficient methods for modelling laser wakefield acceleration in the blowout regime, J. Plasma Phys. (2012), available on CJO doi:10.1017/S0022377812000517.

  • B. Hidding, G. Pretzler, J. B. Rosenzweig, T. Königstein, D. Schiller, D. L. Bruhwiler, Ultracold Electron Bunch Generation via Plasma Photocathode Emission and Acceleration in a Beam-Driven Plasma Blowout <http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.035001>, APS Journals, Phys. Rev. Lett., Volume 108, Issue 3, January 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.035001. Generate BibTex <http://prl.aps.org/export/PRL/v108/i3/e035001?type=bibtex>.

  • Upadhyay, Ajay K., Sushil Arun Samant, and Srinivas Krishnagopal. "Role of the laser pulse-length in producing high-quality electron beams in a homogenous plasma." Physics of Plasmas 19 (2012): 073110.

  • B.M. Cowan, D.L. Bruhwiler, E. Cormier-Michel, E. Esarey, C.G.R. Geddes, P. Messmer, K.M. Paul, Characteristics of an envelope model for laser-plasma accelerator simulation, J. Comput. Phys. 230, 61 (2011), doi:10.1016/j.jcp.2010.09.009.

  • Benjamin M. Cowan, David L. Bruhwiler, Estelle Cormier-Michel, Eric Esarey, Cameron G.R. Geddes, Peter Messmer, and Kevin M. Paul, "Characteristics of an envelope model for laser-plasma accelerator simulation," J. Comput. Phys. 230, 61 (2011), doi:10.1016/j.jcp.2010.09.009.

  • C. G. R. Geddes, E. Cormier-Michel, E. Esarey, K. Nakamura, G. R. * B. Hidding, G. Pretzler, J. B. Rosenzweig, T. Königstein, D. Schiller, D. L. Bruhwiler, Ultracold Electron Bunch Generation via Plasma Photocathode Emission and Acceleration in a Beam-Driven Plasma Blowout <http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.035001>, APS Journals, Phys. Rev. Lett., Volume 108, Issue 3, January 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.035001. Generate BibTex <http://prl.aps.org/export/PRL/v108/i3/e035001?type=bibtex>.

  • Benjamin M. Cowan, David L. Bruhwiler, Estelle Cormier-Michel, Eric Esarey, Cameron G.R. Geddes, Peter Messmer, and Kevin M. Paul, "Characteristics of an envelope model for laser-plasma accelerator imulation," J. Comput. Phys. 230, 61 (2011),doi:10.1016/j.jcp.2010.09.009.

  • Gregory R. Werner, Carl A. Bauer, and John R. Cary, Wakefields in photonic crystal cavities, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 071301 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.071301.

  • D.L. Bruhwiler, J.R. Cary, B. Cowan, K. Paul, C.G.R. Geddes, P.J. Mullowney, P. Messmer, E. Esarey, E. Cormier-Michel, W.P. Leemans and J.-L. Vay, "New Developments in the Simulation of Advanced Accelerator Concepts," 13th Adv. Accel. Concepts Workshop, Eds. C.B. Schroeder, W.P. Leemans and E. Esarey, AIP Conf. Proc. 1086, p. 29 (AIP, Melville, 2009).

  • E. Cormier-Michel, C.G.R. Geddes, E. Esarey, C.B. Schroeder, Cs. Toth, D.L. Bruhwiler, K. Paul, B. Cowan and W.P. Leemans, "Scaled simulations of a 10 GeV accelerator," 13th Adv. Accel. Concepts Workshop, Eds. C.B. Schroeder, W.P. Leemans and E. Esarey, AIP Conf. Proc. 1086, p. 297 (AIP, Melville, 2009).

  • B. Cowan, D.L. Bruhwiler, P. Messmer, K. Paul, C.G.R. Geddes, E. Esarey and E. Cormier-Michel, "Laser wakefield simulation using a speed-of-light frame envelope model," 13th Adv. Accel. Concepts Workshop, Eds. C.B. Schroeder, W.P. Leemans and E. Esarey, AIP Conf. Proc. 1086, p. 309 (AIP, Melville, 2009).

  • C.G.R. Geddes, E. Cormier-Michel, E. Esarey, C.B. Schroeder, W.P. Leemans, D.L. Bruhwiler, B. Cowan, C. Nieter, K. Paul and J.R. Cary, "Scaled Simulation Design of High Quality Laser Wakefiled Accelerator Stages," Proc. Particle Accelerator Conference (Vancouver, 2009), paper WE6RFP075.

  • C.G.R. Geddes, E. Cormier-Michel, E. Esarey, K. Nakamura, G.R. Plateau, C.B. Schroeder, Cs. Toth, D.L. Bruhwiler, J.R. Cary, W.P. Leemans, "Plasma gradient controlled injection and postacceleration of high quality electron bunches," 13th Adv. Accel. Concepts Workshop, Eds. C.B. Schroeder, W.P. Leemans and E. Esarey, AIP Conf. Proc. 1086, p. 12 (AIP, Melville, 2009).

  • C. G. R. Geddes, E Cormier-Michel, E. H. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, J.-L. Vay, W. P. Leemans, D. L.. Bruhwiler, J. R. Cary, B. Cowan, M. Durant, P. Hamill, P. Messmer, P. Mullowney, C. Nieter, K. Paul, S. Shasharina, S. Veitzer, G. Weber, O. Rübel, D. Ushizima, Prabhat, E.W.Bethel, K. Wu."Large Fields for Smaller Facility Sources." <http://www.txcorp.com/pdf/publications/geddes.pdf> SciDAC Review, Number 13, Summer 2009. LBNL-2299E.

  • W.P. Leemans, E. Esarey, C.G.R. Geddes, Cs. Toth, C.B. Schroeder, K. Nakamura, A.J. Gonsalves, D. Panasenko, E. Cormier-Michel, G.R. Plateau, C. Lin, D.L. Bruhwiler and J.R. Cary, "Progress on laser plasma accelerator development using transversely and longitudinally shaped plasmas," Comptes Rendus Physique 10, p. 130 (2009).

  • K. Paul, D.L. Bruhwiler, B. Cowan, J.R. Cary, C. Huang, F.S. Tsung, W.B. Mori, E. Cormier-Michel, C.G.R. Geddes, E. Esarey, S. Martins, R.A. Fonseca and L.O. Silva, "Benchmarking the codes VORPAL, OSIRIS and QuickPIC with Laser Wakefield Acceleration Simulations," 13th Adv. Accel. Concepts Workshop, Eds. C.B. Schroeder, W.P. Leemans and E. Esarey, AIP Conf. Proc. 1086, p. 315 (AIP, Melville, 2009).

  • D.L. Bruhwiler, J.R. Cary, B. Cowan, K. Paul, C.G.R. Geddes, P.J. Mullowney, P. Messmer, E. Esarey, E. Cormier-Michel, W.P. Leemans and J.-L. Vay, "New Developments in the Simulation of Advanced Accelerator Concepts," 13th Adv. Accel. Concepts Workshop, Eds. C.B. Schroeder, W.P. Leemans and E. Esarey, AIP Conf. Proc. 1086, p. 29 (AIP, Melville, 2009).

  • E. Cormier-Michel, C.G.R. Geddes, E. Esarey, C.B. Schroeder, Cs. Toth, D.L. Bruhwiler, K. Paul, B. Cowan and W.P. Leemans, "Scaled simulations of a 10 GeV accelerator," 13th Adv. Accel. Concepts Workshop, Eds. C.B. Schroeder, W.P. Leemans and E. Esarey, AIP Conf. Proc. 1086, p. 297 (AIP, Melville, 2009).

  • B. Cowan, D.L. Bruhwiler, P. Messmer, K. Paul, C.G.R. Geddes, E. Esarey and E. Cormier-Michel, "Laser wakefield simulation using a speed-of-light frame envelope model," 13th Adv. Accel. Concepts Workshop, Eds. C.B. Schroeder, W.P. Leemans and E. Esarey, AIP Conf. Proc. 1086, p. 309 (AIP, Melville, 2009).

  • C.G.R. Geddes, E. Cormier-Michel, E. Esarey, C.B. Schroeder, W.P. Leemans, D.L. Bruhwiler, B. Cowan, C. Nieter, K. Paul and J.R. Cary, "Scaled Simulation Design of High Quality Laser Wakefiled Accelerator Stages," Proc. Particle Accelerator Conference (Vancouver, 2009), paper WE6RFP075.

  • C.G.R. Geddes, E. Cormier-Michel, E. Esarey, K. Nakamura, G.R. Plateau, C.B. Schroeder, Cs. Toth, D.L. Bruhwiler, J.R. Cary, W.P. Leemans, "Plasma gradient controlled injection and postacceleration of high quality electron bunches," 13th Adv. Accel. Concepts Workshop, Eds. C.B. Schroeder, W.P. Leemans and E. Esarey, AIP Conf. Proc. 1086, p. 12 (AIP, Melville, 2009).

  • C. G. R. Geddes, E Cormier-Michel, E. H. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, J.-L. Vay, W. P. Leemans, D. L.. Bruhwiler, J. R. Cary, B. Cowan, M. Durant, P. Hamill, P. Messmer, P. Mullowney, C. Nieter, K. Paul, S. Shasharina, S. Veitzer, G. Weber, O. Rübel, D. Ushizima, Prabhat, E. W.Bethel, K. Wu."Large Fields for Smaller Facility Sources." <http://www.txcorp.com/pdf/publications/geddes.pdf> SciDAC Review, Number 13, Summer 2009. LBNL-2299E.

  • W.P. Leemans, E. Esarey, C.G.R. Geddes, Cs. Toth, C.B. Schroeder, K. Nakamura, A.J. Gonsalves, D. Panasenko, E. Cormier-Michel, G.R. Plateau, C. Lin, D.L. Bruhwiler and J.R. Cary, "Progress on laser plasma accelerator development using transversely and longitudinally shaped plasmas," Comptes Rendus Physique 10, p. 130 (2009).

  • K. Paul, D.L. Bruhwiler, B. Cowan, J.R. Cary, C. Huang, F.S. Tsung, W.B. Mori, E. Cormier-Michel, C.G.R. Geddes, E. Esarey, S. Martins, R.A. Fonseca and L.O. Silva, "Benchmarking the codes VORPAL, OSIRIS and QuickPIC with Laser Wakefield Acceleration Simulations," 13th Adv. Accel. Concepts Workshop, Eds. C.B. Schroeder, W.P. Leemans and E. Esarey, AIP Conf. Proc. 1086, p. 315 (AIP, Melville, 2009).

  • Bell, George I., David L. Bruhwiler, Alexei Fedotov, Andrey Sobol, Richard S. Busby, Peter Stoltz, Dan T. Abell, Peter Messmer, Ilan Ben-Zvi and Vladimir Litvinenko. "Simulating the dynamical friction force on ions due to a briefly co-propagating electron beam." <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2008.06.019> Journal of Computational Physics (2008), DOI: 10.1016/j.jcp.2008.06.019.

  • David L. Bruhwiler, John R. Cary, Benjamin M. Cowan, Kevin Paul, Cameron G. R. Geddes, Paul J. Mullowney, Peter Messmer, Eric Esarey, Estelle Cormier-Michel, Wim Leemans and Jean-Luc Vay, "New Developments in the Simulation of Advanced Accelerator Concepts," <http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=APCPCS001086000001000029000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes> AIP Conference Proceedings*1086*, 29 (Proc. Adv. Accelerator Concepts Workshop, Santa Cruz, CA, 2008).

  • Cowan, Benjamin M. Three-dimensional dielectric photonic crystal structures for laser-driven acceleration. <http://www.txcorp.com/pdf/publications/e011301.pdf> Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 011301 (2008).

  • C G R Geddes, D L Bruhwiler, J R Cary, W B Mori, J-L Vay, S F Martins, T Katsouleas, E Cormier-Michel, W M Fawley, C Huang, X Wang, B Cowan, V K Decyk, E Esarey, R A Fonseca, W Lu, P Messmer, P Mullowney, K Nakamura, K Paul, G R Plateau, C B Schroeder, L O Silva, C Toth, F S Tsung, M Tzoufras, T Antonsen, J Vieira and W P Leemans,"Computational studies and optimization of wakefield accelerators," <http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1742-6596/125/1/012002/jpconf8_125_012002.pdf?request-id=774eb8f9-13d0-48cd-ba2d-f12e11545adf> J. Physics: Conf. Series *125*, 012002 (2008).

  • Bell, George I., David L. Bruhwiler, Alexei Fedotov, Andrey Sobol, Richard S. Busby, Peter Stoltz, Dan T. Abell, Peter Messmer, Ilan Ben-Zvi and Vladimir Litvinenko. "Simulating the dynamical friction force on ions due to a briefly co-propagating electron beam." <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2008.06.019> Journal of Computational Physics (2008), DOI: 10.1016/j.jcp.2008.06.019.

  • David L. Bruhwiler, John R. Cary, Benjamin M. Cowan, Kevin Paul, Cameron G. R. Geddes, Paul J. Mullowney, Peter Messmer, Eric Esarey, Estelle Cormier-Michel, Wim Leemans and Jean-Luc Vay, "New Developments in the Simulation of Advanced Accelerator Concepts," <http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=APCPCS001086000001000029000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes> AIP Conference Proceedings*1086*, 29 (Proc. Adv. Accelerator Concepts Workshop, Santa Cruz, CA, 2008).

  • Cowan, Benjamin M. Three-dimensional dielectric photonic crystal structures for laser-driven acceleration. <http://www.txcorp.com/pdf/publications/e011301.pdf> Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 011301 (2008).

  • C G R Geddes, D L Bruhwiler, J R Cary, W B Mori, J-L Vay, S F Martins, T Katsouleas, E Cormier-Michel, W M Fawley, C Huang, X Wang, B Cowan, V K Decyk, E Esarey, R A Fonseca, W Lu, P Messmer, P Mullowney, K Nakamura, K Paul, G R Plateau, C B Schroeder, L O Silva, C Toth, F S Tsung, M Tzoufras, T Antonsen, J Vieira and W P Leemans,"Computational studies and optimization of wakefield accelerators," <http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1742-6596/125/1/012002/jpconf8_125_012002.pdf?request-id=774eb8f9-13d0-48cd-ba2d-f12e11545adf> J. Physics: Conf. Series *125*, 012002 (2008).

  • C. G. R. Geddes, E. Cormier-Michel, E. Esarey, K. Nakamura, G. R. Plateau, C. B. Schroeder, Cs. Toth, D. L. Bruhwiler, J. R. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "Plasma Gradient Controlled Injection and Postacceleration of High-Quality Electron Bunches," <http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=APCPCS001086000001000012000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes> AIP Conference Proceedings *1086*, 12 (Proc. Adv. Accelerator Concepts Workshop, Santa Cruz, CA, 2008).

  • Karoly Nemeth, Baifei Shen, Yuelin Li, Robert Crowell, Katherine C. Harkay, and John R. Cary, "Laser driven coherent betatron oscillation in a laser-wakefield cavity," <http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v100/e095002> Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 095002 (2008), doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.095002.

  • C.G.R. Geddes, D. Bruhwiler, J.R. Cary, E. Cormier-Michel, E. Esarey, C.B. Schroeder, W.A. Isaacs, N. Stinus, P. Messmer, A. Hakim, K. Nakamura, A.J. Gonsalves, D. Panasenko, G.R. Plateau, Cs. Toth, .Nagler, J. van Tilborg, T. Cowan, S. M. Hooker and W.P. Leemans, "Laser wakefield simulations towards development of compact particle accelerators,"<http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1742-6596/78/1/012021/jpconf7_78_012021.pdf?request-id=b5ea48fb-d5e0-47f7-a4fd-83f0e9a1f76f> J. Physics: Conf. Series, *78*, 012021 (2007).

  • C.G.R. Geddes, D. Bruhwiler, J.R. Cary, E. Cormier-Michel, E. Esarey, C.B. Schroeder, W.A. Isaacs, N. Stinus, P. Messmer, A. Hakim, K. Nakamura, A.J. Gonsalves, D. Panasenko, G.R. Plateau, Cs. Toth, B.Nagler, J. van Tilborg, T. Cowan, S. M. Hooker and W.P. Leemans, "Laser wakefield simulations towards development of compact particle accelerators," <http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1742-6596/78/1/012021/jpconf7_78_012021.pdf?request-id=b5ea48fb-d5e0-47f7-a4fd-83f0e9a1f76f> J. Physics: Conf. Series, *78*, 012021 (2007).

  • D. A. Dimitrov, R. E. Giacone, D. L. Bruhwiler, R. Busby, J. R. Cary, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans."Coupling of laser energy into plasma channels." <http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PHPAEN000014000004043105000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=Yes> Phys. Plasmas 14, 043105 (2007)

  • Messmer, Peter and David L. Bruhwiler. "Simulating laser pulse propagation and low-frequency wave emission in capillary plasma channel systems with a ponderomotive guiding center model" <http://prst-ab.aps.org/abstract/PRSTAB/v9/i3/e031302>, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 031302 (2006)

  • C. G. R. Geddes, Cs. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "Guiding of relativistic laser pulses by preformed plasma channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. (2005)

  • C. G. R. Geddes, Cs. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "Production of high-quality electron bunches by dephasing and beam loading in channeled and unchanneled laser plasma accelerators," Phys. Plasmas 12 (5), 056709 (2005).

  • J. R. Cary, R. Giacone, C. Nieter, D. L. Bruhwiler, "Clean beams from optical injection with a cleanup pulse," Phys. Plasmas 12 (5), 056704 (2005).

  • Geddes, C. G. R., Cs Toth, J. Van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans. "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding."  Nature/ 431, no. 7008 (2004): 538-541.

  • C. Nieter and J. R. Cary, "VORPAL: a versatile plasma simulation code", J. Comp. Phys. 196, 448-472 (2004).

  • Cameron G.R. Geddes, Csaba Toth, Jeroen van Tilborg, Eric Esarey, Carl B. Schroeder, David L. Bruhwiler, John R. Cary, and Wim Leemans, "Laser guiding at relativistic intensities and wakefield particle acceleration in plasma channels", In Proceedings of the 11th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop Stony Brook, NY 2004.

  • P. Messmer, D.L. Bruhwiler, J.R. Cary, and D.A. Dimitrov, "Ion acceleration and wave generation by overdense laser-plasma interaction", In Proceedings of the 11th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop Stony Brook, NY 2004.

  • Dimitre A. Dimitrov, David L. Bruhwiler, John R. Cary, Peter Messmer, Cameron G.R. Geddes, Wim Leemans, and Eric Esarey, "Particle-in-cell simulations of intense laser pulses coupling into plasma channels", In Proceedings of the 11th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop Stony Brook, NY 2004.

  • David L. Bruhwiler, Dimitre A. Dimitrov, John R. Cary, Eric Esarey, Wim Leemans and Rodolfo E. Giacone, "Particle-in-cell simulations of tunneling ionization effects in plasma-based accelerators," Phys. Plasmas 10 (2003), p. 2022. (Invited)

  • David L. Bruhwiler, Rodolfo E. Giacone, John R. Cary, John P. Verboncoeur, Peter Mardahl, Eric Esarey, Wim Leemans and Brad Shadwick, "Particle-in-cell simulations of plasma accelerators and electron-neutral collisions," <http://prst-ab.aps.org/abstract/PRSTAB/v4/i10/e101302> Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 101302 (2001).
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